Bitter melon, also called bitter apple, bitter gourd or bitter cucumber, is a vine-grown vegetable that can range in color from dark green to white and can grow between three to twelve inches tall. Diabetes Health reports that several compounds in bitter melon may have glucose-lowering properties and they include polypeptide P, vicine, and momordin and charantin, which are glycosides. The juice and pulp can be eaten and an injectable compound made from this vegetable has also been tested. There’s no traditional dose established for bitter melon. You should always consult your doctor before using bitter melon as a supplement to help control diabetes.